Drug Abuse in the Global Village



                        Extent of Drug Abuse

Extracts of opium poppy is the main drug of abuse (63% of all registered drug abusers in 1992), followed by cannabis (13%) in the Russian Federation. Toxic substances like acetone, benzene, glues, tranquilizers which are not under control, and multiple drugs are also abused (U.N. 1992).

Data reported separately for drug addicts and drug abusers.

            In 1992, there were 32,610 registered drug addicts and 20,281 registered drug abusers, of which 5141 drug addicts and 6669 drug abusers were registered for the first time in that year (U.N. 1992).

                       Abuser Characteristics

Majority of registered drug addicts in 1992 were males (87%) (U.N. 1992).

                         Regional  Variations

No information reported by 31st December 1993.


A steady rise in the illegal distribution of narcotic drugs and an increase in the number of drug addicts was reported for 1993 (Policy 1993).

            In 1992, a decrease in the abuse of home-made preparations of various kinds of poppy and straw was reported while some increase was reported in the abuse of home-made hemp preparations (U.N. 1992).

                             Mode of intake

Hemp preparations are reported taken by mouth or smoked. Home-made poppy/poppy straw preparations are taken by mouth (U.N. 1992).


No statistics on numbers of deaths resulting from or related to drug abuse are kept in the Russian Federation, and for 1992, no drug related deaths were reported (U.N. 1992).

            Of the 37 adolescent/adult AIDS cases reported in June 1993, none were of injecting drug abusers (AIDS Report 1993).


                           National Strategy

The State Narcotic Drug Policy, approved in July 1993, aims at a balanced approach between preventing and interdicting the illicit supply of narcotic drugs and reducing the demand for them. The policy involves: improvement of the procedures for regulating legal trading in narcotic drugs, efforts to combat the illicit traffic in these substances, prevention of their unlawful consumption and treatment and social reintegration for drug addicts (Policy 1993).

            The policy's immediate priorities are the improvement of operations to monitor the traffic in narcotic drugs and the creation of the necessary legal framework for these activities; the establishment of an interdepartmental system for the collection and analysis of information on drug movements; the application of methods for the identification of narcotic substances; the introduction of improved medical and legal approaches to the early detection of illicit consumers and also the singling out of high risk population groups so that they may be assisted through specifically designed preventive measures (Policy 1993).



                           Treaty adherence

The Russian Federation is Party to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.


                          Primary Prevention

Health education programmes concerning a number of narcotics, are targeted at particular risk groups. Preventive materials are published along with popular science brochures (U.N. 1992).

            The new National Drug Control Policy is planning for the training of teachers, medical professionals, social workers and law enforcement officers in drug abuse prevention and the preparation of educational anti-drug programmes aimed at the general population is planned (Policy 1993).

                 Treatment and Rehabilitation

Drug addicts are required to undergo minimum mandatory in-patient treatment. First-time registered addicts are placed in hospitals for examination and detoxification as well as psychotherapy. Out-patient anti-recidivist programmes include psychotherapy (primarily rational psychotherapy but also hypnotherapy and autogenic training), electrically induced sleep, medicine based therapy designed to provide general physical strengthening and acupuncture (U.N. 1992).


     Arrests, Convictions and Types of Offences

A three-fold increase in the number of detected drug related crimes was reported for the period 1983 to 1993 (Policy 1993).


The volume of narcotic drugs seized has increased by 30 times from 1983 to 1993, and in 1991 totalled more than 20 tonnes (Policy 1993). In 1991, 41 seizures of cannabis herb (77.9 kg), 28 seizures of cannabis resin (more than 3 tonnes), 11 seizures of opium (2.8 kg), 6 seizures of heroin (13.2 kg), 5 seizures of cocaine (12.7 kg) and one seizure of stimulants (0.902 kg) were reported (U.N. 1991).

                      Supply Source of Drugs

One third of the narcotics involved in the illicit trafficking in the Russian Federation is reported to originate from abroad (Policy 1993).


                       References and Notes

** The Legal, Administrative and Other Action Taken to Implement the International Drug Control Treaties section was prepared by the Secretariat of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs based on Annual Reports Questionnaires for the years .... (not available by January 15th 1994).

U.N. 1991,1992. Replies to the UNDCP Annual Reports Questionnaires for the years 1991 and 1992.

AIDS Report 1993. AIDS surveillance in Europe, 1993. Quarterly Report No. 38, 30 June 1993. European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS.

Policy 1993. Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation of the Guiding Principles of the State Policy on the Control of Narcotic Drugs in the Russian Federation. Moscow, House of the Soviets of Russia. 22 July 1993, No 5494-1.