Drug Abuse in the Global Village

Drug Abuse in Western Europe

                                                 SUPPLY SOURCE OF DRUGS

Cocaine seized in Austria originated from Latin America and was brought in mainly by air by Latin American couriers but also by Nigerians. Heroin originates mainly from Turkey and Iran via the Balkan route. Heroin of high purity from the Far East has been seized too (Austria 1991).


Cocaine seized originates from Latin America (mainly Colombia and Surinam). Approximately half is destined for the Belgium market, the other half is in transit to the Netherlands and, to a lesser extent, Span. About half of the seized heroin originates from Turkey; close to half, from South East and South West Asia and about five per cent, from Africa. Cannabis originates mainly from Africa. In 1991, some of the seized herbal cannabis originated from Colombia. Cannabis resin originated from Morocco (U.N. 1991).


Of the heroin seized in 1990, 14 per cent originated from South East Asia, 44 per cent from South West Asia, 18 per cent from the Near and Middle East and 19 per cent from the Netherlands (France 1991). About 56 per cent of the seized cocaine originated from Colombia and the remainder, mainly from Bolivia, Peru, Brazil and Equator (Statistiques 1990). About 64 per cent of the seized cannabis originated from Morocco (Statistiques 1990).


Between June 1991 and June 1992, Turkey was the most important source of heroin: 2/3 of the total seized heroin were smuggled into Germany from or via Turkey. A route through the Czech and Slovak Republics gained importance for the traffic of heroin after the opening of the borders to the East and because of war disruption of traditional routes in the former Yugoslavia.

            Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador and the Netherlands are the most important sources and transit countries for cocaine seized in Germany (Bundeskriminalamt, 1992).


Seized cocaine is reported to originate from Colombia, Peru and Bolivia and cannabis from Africa (U.N. 1989).


Most heroin seized originates from South West Asia and Turkey (67 per cent in 1991), followed by South East Asia (12 per cent). Chinese crime syndicates are reported to be reestablishing themselves in the illicit traffic of heroin originating from South East Asia. Nigerian couriers are increasingly involved in the illicit traffic of heroin coming from Asia . Seized cocaine originates from Colombia. There is evidence that Surinam and other countries in the Caribbean are used as transit countries. Most cocaine is trafficked by air and sea. Most seized cannabis was shipped or transported by lorries from North Africa (Ministry of Welfare et al. 1991).


No information reported by 31st December 1993.



Heroin originates from Turkey, India, Thailand and Africa, and cocaine from Latin America. Cannabis originates from the Netherlands, Spain and North Africa (Police 1992).