Drug Abuse in the Global Village

Drug Abuse in Western Europe

                                                          MODE OF INTAKE

Multiple drug abuse characterizes the Austrian drug subculture. Sedative hypnotics and alcohol abuse combined with or as a substitute of illicit drugs is common (Austria 1991).


No information reported by 31st December 1993.


Heroin is mainly injected. Approximately 65 per cent of the total drug abusers in France are intravenous drug abusers (WHO 1991).


Heroin is mainly injected. Cocaine is reported to be mainly sniffed, but also injected. Benzodiazepines and amphetamines are reported ingested. Amphetamine is also injected. Cannabis is smoked (U.N. 1991).


Cocaine is reported sniffed but also injected. Heroin is inhaled, sniffed and injected and amphetamine is both ingested and injected. Abuse of heroin and amphetamines combinations are reported as well as that of combinations of cocaine, sedatives and alcohol (U.N. 1992).


Injection of drugs is prevalent among 40 per cent of drug addicts, especially opiate abusers. In some smaller cities, this percentage is lower since injecting is somewhat a taboo. The majority of drug abusers smoke drugs (60 per cent) or inhale the fumes (Chase the Dragon) (Ministry of Welfare et al. 1991).


Heroin is reported inhaled and injected. Benzodiazepines are reported ingested, when not taken in combination with heroin (U.N. 1992).


Injection of heroin, cocaine, methadone and various medical preparations are common (Switzerland 1991).