Drug Abuse in the Global Village

Drug Abuse in Eastern Europe

                                                          MODE OF INTAKE

A significant percentage of drug addicts (58.7%) are intravenous drug abusers (U.N. 1992).


Intravenous drug abuse is rare (Bulgaria 1992).


The estimated proportion of intravenous drug abusers among the drug addicts is 30%. Eighty percent of opiate abusers are injecting, 10% sniffing, 5% ingesting and 5% smoking. Cocaine is reported injected by 25% of the drug abusers and sniffed by 70%. Amphetamines are not reported injected. Ninety percent of those abusing sedatives ingest them, but 10% inject them. There has been changes in the mode of intake, with increases in sniffing, smoking and inhalation and a decrease in injecting (U.N. 1992).


Most drugs are ingested or inhaled. Multiple drug  abuse is very common among registered drug abusers and consumption is often associated with alcohol, tobacco and prescription drugs. About 9% of the registered drug abusers are intravenous drug abusers (U.N. 1991).


Intravenous drug abuse of opiates (codeine and hydrocodeine), benzodiazepines and glutethimide is increasing (U.N. 1989).


Opiates are injected, so are amphetamine and sedatives. Opiates are taken in combination with amphetamines and benzodiazepines and barbiturates with amphetamines (U.N. 1992).


About 80% of all drug addicts in Poland are intravenous drug abusers. The most frequently injected drugs are opiates (CMO 1991). Solvents are inhaled from plastic bags (U.N. 1990). The "Kompot" or Polish heroin is often mixed with barbiturates or benzodiazepines (Puzynski, S. 1983).


Opium is reported inhaled while heroin and synthetic narcotic analgesics are injected (U.N. 1992).


Hemp preparations are reported taken by mouth or smoked. Home-made poppy/poppy straw preparations are taken by mouth (U.N. 1992).


No information reported by 31st December 1993.


Ninety five percent of all drug addicts registered are intravenous drug abusers. Opiates are reported injected. Opium is taken in combination with sedatives (U.N. 1992).