Drug Abuse in the Global Village
Drug Abuse in Africa

Cote D’ Ivoire


                                                                      Extent of Drug Abuse

According to registries of drug abusers the most abused drugs are cannabis (672 registered abusers), followed by heroin (169), cocaine (46), and benzodiazepines (19). Other reported drugs abused are barbiturates, amphetamine and barbiturates (U.N. 1993).

                                                                     Abuser Characteristics

Most registered drug abusers are males (91%) between 20 and 34 years old, followed by 15 to 19 and over 35 years old (U.N. 1993).

                                                                       Regional Variations

Drugs, particularly heroin and cocaine, are abused mainly in urban areas, but cannabis, benzodiazepines and barbiturates are also abused in rural areas (U.N. 1989).


In 1993, some increase in the abuse of benzodiazepines was reported. Heroin and cannabis abuse were reported stable while the abuse of cocaine, amphetamine and barbiturates were reported decreasing (U.N. 1993).

                                                                           Mode of Intake

In 1993, Heroin and cocaine were reported injected as well as inhaled and sniffed. Opium and cannabis were reported smoked.  Amphetamines, barbiturates and benzodiazepines are ingested.  Heroin, cocaine and cannabis are reported taken in combination with alcohol and tobacco. Amphetamines are taken in combination with coffee and alcohol (U.N. 1993).

                                                  COSTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ABUSE

In 1989, 3 deaths were reported due to heroin overdose (U.N. 1989).

            The impact AIDS in the country is significant, especially among those aged between 25 and 49 (AIDS 1994).  However, no data on the association between HIV/AIDS and drug abuse or intravenous drug abuse was reported.




                                                 NATIONAL RESPONSES TO DRUG ABUSE

                                                                         National Strategy

An Inter-Ministerial Committee for Drug Abuse Control (CILAD) was established in 1982 and is coordinating drug policies and activities with regard to demand reduction and prevention (U.N. 1989). Cote d'Ivoire's counternarcotics effort is coordinated by the National Drug Police (INCSR 1993).

                                                    Structure of National Drug Control Organs

The central government unit responsible for liaison and coordination of national drug control policy is the Ministry of Internal Security and Drug Control.


                                          LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND OTHER ACTION
                                           TAKEN TO IMPLEMENT THE INTERNATIONAL
                                                           DRUG CONTROL TREATIES**

                                                                         Treaty Adherence

Cote d'Ivoire is Party to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs as amended by the 1972 Protocol, 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

                                                 Measures Taken with Respect to Drug Control

Recently enacted laws and regulations:
In July 1988, a law relating to suppression of illicit traffic and illicit use of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and other poisonous substances was enacted.

Licensing system for manufacture, trade and distribution:
There is no government controlled licensing system. In 1993, it was reported that such a licensing system existed.  No manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances was reported.

Control system:
(i) Prescription requirement: There is a prescription requirement for supply or dispensation of preparations containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
(ii) Warnings on packages: The law requires warnings on packages or accompanying leaflet information to safeguard the users of preparations containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
(iii) Control of non-treaty substances, if any: None reported.
(iv) Other administrative measures: In 1988, a number of regulations and administrative measures were passed so as to make drug trafficking seem less attractive, including an increase in prison terms from 5 to 20 years and confiscation of assets linked to drug traffic.

                                                                          Social Measures

Penal sanctions related to social measures: In 1989 and 1991, courts applied measures of treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation or social reintegration for a drug-related offence in addition to conviction or punishment. In 1993, courts applied measures of treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation or social reintegration for a drug-related offence neither as an alternative nor in addition to conviction or punishment.

Other social measures: In 1991, various campaigns against drug abuse were carried out in schools and in the private sector. The objective of the campaigns was to alert the public to the dangers of drugs.


                                                       DEMAND REDUCTION ACTIVITIES

                                                                        Primary Prevention

Drug prevention education has been carried out in schools and universities as part of the national curricula since 1984.  Drug prevention education is provided in the national languages. Medical professionals, police, teachers and social workers are trained in drug preventive education through the Inter-Ministerial Committee for Drug Abuse Control. Since 1988, a drug prevention campaign has been carried out annually for a duration of one week. A National Committee of Youth Against Drug and Alcohol Abuse has been created (U.N. 1989).

                                                               Treatment and Rehabilitation

Drug abuse treatment is provided in two general hospitals. In 1989, 52 emergency room drug related cases were reported. Relapse is reported common (DAA 1990). A rehabilitation center was in planning (U.N. 1989).

                                                        SUPPLY REDUCTION ACTIVITIES

                                                    Arrests, Convictions and Types of Offenses

Drug offenders receive mandatory five-year sentences for consuming drugs and ten-year for trafficking (INCSR 1993). In 1989, 845 persons were arrested for drug related offenses, including 289 for drug consumption and 586 were sentenced.  About 4 per cent of the offenders were under 18 years of age (DAA 1990).


In 1992, reported seizures included 792 kg of cannabis herb, 0.429 kg of cocaine (compared with 4.325 kg in 1991), 6.872 kg of heroin and 4 units of stimulants (Other official sources 1991, 1992). 3 kg of heroin bound to New York were seized at Abidjan's airport in the last 2 months of 1992 as a result of increased attention to transit passengers (INCSR 1993).

                                                                    Supply Source of Drugs

Heroin is imported mainly from India, Pakistan and Thailand (Mission 1991).

            South America constitutes the main supply source of cocaine.   Despite the reduction of the possibilities of bringing cocaine into the country, which was caused by the suppression of the aerial line Rio de Janeiro-Abidjan, the drug is still brought to Lagos and then to Cote d'Ivoire through Ghana and Togo.   Another supplier of cocaine and heroin is Lebanon (Mission 1991).

            Cannabis is grown in Eastern Cote d'Ivoire in small quantities for local consumption.  Production in 1992 appears to be relatively unchanged from previous years (INCSR 1993).

            The illicit traffic of psychotropic substances originate mainly from Europe (from countries such as France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Bulgaria), according to some reports. However, supporting evidence to determine exact sources is lacking. Amphetamines and barbiturates dominate this clandestine market.  Diversion of licit drugs to the illicit market, through thefts from pharmacies, is also reported (Mission 1991).

            Cote d'Ivoire concentrated its efforts on reducing the use of Abidjan's airport as a narcotics transit point and as a supply point for domestic drug abuse (INCSR 1993).


References and Notes

AIDS 1994.  AIDS and the Demography of Africa, United Nations, New York, 1994.  Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

U.N. 1989, 1993. Replies to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaires" for the years 1989 and 1993.

DAA 1990. Reply to the Drug Abuse Assessment System Field Test Draft for the year 1990.

INCSR 1993.  International Narcotics Control Strategy Report - April 1993.

Other official sources 1991, 1992. Obtained from one or more seizure reports provided by the Government or from other official sources for the years 1991 and 1992.

Mission 1991.  Rapport de Mission en Cote d'Ivoire 4-10 mars 1991
Programme des Nations Unies pour le Controle International des Drogues- Fonds pour la Lutte Contre l'Abuse des Drogues. Thibault le Pichon- Administrateur de Programmes.


** The Legal, Administrative and Other Action Taken to Implement the International Drug Control Treaties section was prepared by the Secretariat of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs based on  Annual Reports Questionnaire for the years 1988-89, 1991, 1993.