Drug Abuse In the Global Village
Drug Abuse in Africa



Extent of Drug Abuse

In 1989, it was estimated that there were 50 opium abusers, 50 heroin abusers, 50 cannabis abusers, 400 psychotropic substances abusers (amphetamines, benzodiazepines, sedatives and hallucinogens) and 100 volatile solvents abusers in Chad (U.N. 1989).

Abuser Characteristics

The age of drug abusers range from 10 to 70 years. Abuse is more pronounced among specific age groups: volatile solvents, among the 10 to 20 years old; psychotropic substances, among those 15 to 40 years old and opium, heroin and cannabis, among those 20 to 70 years old. Drug abuse among women was not reported, except for volatile solvents abuse, which is reported to be rare (U.N. 1989).

            Volatile solvents abusers tend to be of low education, unemployed and orphans (U.N. 1989).

            The following occupational groups were identified for being subject to high risk to abuse drugs: taxi drivers, factory workers, farmers, merchants, tailors, and night watchmen (U.N. 1992).

                                                                       Regional Variations

According to the 1992 Annual Reports Questionnaire, geographical variations of drug consumption in Chad are unknown, due to lack of epidemiological research (U.N. 1992). In 1989, it was suggested that drug abuse is more prevalent in urban areas, while volatile solvents abuse is more common in rural areas (U.N. 1989).


Large increases in the abuse of volatile solvents as well as in psychotropic substances were reported for 1989 (U.N. 1989).

Mode of Intake

Volatile solvents were reported inhaled and taken with alcohol and hallucinogenic plants.  Psychotropic substances were reported smoked, taken orally, or inhaled and taken in combination with hallucinogenic plants and alcohol (U.N. 1989).



Psychotropic substance abuse related deaths were reported, without any estimation (U.N. 1989).



National Strategy

In 1992, an inter ministerial Committee was created to coordinate governmental action against drug abuse. A revision of the legislation is planned to incorporate preventive measures (Chad; CEEAC; INCB 1993).

                                                    Structure of National Drug Control Organs

The central government unit responsible for liaison and coordination of national drug control policy is the Brigade des stupיfiants, part of the national police force.


                                          LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND OTHER ACTION
                                           TAKEN TO IMPLEMENT THE INTERNATIONAL
                                                           DRUG CONTROL TREATIES**

                                                                         Treaty Adherence

Chad is party to the 1961 Convention only (unamended) . For ratification of the 1988 Convention, it was reported that an Interministerial Committee was in the process of being established.

                                                 Measures Taken with Respect to Drug Control

Laws and regulations:
None reported.

Licensing system for manufacture, trade and distribution:
There is a licensing system. No manufacture of psychotropic substances or narcotic drugs  was reported.

Control system:
(i) Prescription requirement: There is a prescription requirement for supply or dispensation of preparations containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
(ii) Warnings on packages: The law requires warnings on packages or accompanying leaflet information to safeguard the users of preparations containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
(iii) Control of non-treaty substances, if any: None reported.
(iv) Other administrative measures: None reported.

                                                                          Social Measures

Penal sanctions related to social measures: In 1991, courts applied measures of treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation or social reintegration for a drug-related offence neither as an alternative nor in addition to conviction or punishment.

Other social measures: None reported in 1991. In 1989, it was reported that drug delinquents were taken care of in an organization referred to as AICF ( Action internationale contre la faim - International Action Against Hunger) which had an education centre which dealt with the issue of rehabilitation and reintegration into society of the drug addict.

                                                       DEMAND REDUCTION ACTIVITIES

Primary Prevention

Religious groups conduct drug prevention activities, targeting their respective faithful (U.N. 1992).

            Drug abusers in the work place are dealt with through sanctions such as salary suspension, fines and in some cases dismissal (CMO 1989)

Treatment and Rehabilitation

Drug abusers in treatment are either attached to their beds or given tranquilizers. However, drug abusers are usually cared for privately, by their families. The organization "Action International Contre la Faim" took care of young drug abusers between the ages of 10 and 15 until 1989.  Imprisoned drug abusers are not treated (U.N. 1989).


                                                        SUPPLY REDUCTION ACTIVITIES

Arrests, Convictions and Types of Offenses

No information reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December 1993.


In 1991, 131 kg of cannabis herb, 1.65 kg of heroin, 10,740 units of depressants, and 27,605 units of stimulants were seized (Other official sources 1991; U.N. 1991).

                                                                    Supply Source of Drugs

No information reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December 1993.

            According to sources from the "Brigade des Stupefiants", Colombian heroin, in transit through Nigeria and Chad is increasing (U.N. 1992).


References and Notes

U.N. 1989, 1991, 1992.  Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaire" for the years 1989, 1991 and 1992.

CEEAC. Technical Committee Communaute Economic des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale.

Chad. Country Report for Chad.

CMO 1989. Reply to Secretary General's Questionnaire concerning the seven targets of the "Comprehensive Multi-Disciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control" (CMO) 1989.

INCB 1993. International Narcotics Control Board 1993.

Other official sources 1991. Obtained from one or more seizure reports provided by the Government or from other official sources for the year 1991.



** The Legal, Administrative and Other Action Taken to Implement the International Drug Control Treaties section was prepared by the Secretariat of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs based on Annual Reports Questionnaire for the years 1989-91.