Drug Abuse in Africa

Regional Variations

Burkina Faso
Cannabis is abused mainly in urban areas.  Stimulants are abused more in rural areas, mainly by mine
workers (U.N. 1990).

According to the 1992 Annual Reports Questionnaire, geographical variations of drug consumption in Chad
are unknown, due to lack of epidemiological research (U.N. 1992). In 1989, it was suggested that drug
abuse is more prevalent in urban areas, while volatile solvents abuse is more common in rural areas
(U.N. 1989).

Cote D'Ivoire
Drugs, particularly heroin and cocaine, are abused mainly in urban areas, but cannabis, benzodiazepines
and barbiturates are also abused in rural areas (U.N. 1989).

Drug abuse is more common in the urban areas than in rural and semi-rural areas (U.N. 1989a, 1989b).

No information concerning regional variations has been reported.

No information was reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December 1993.

Heroin and cocaine abuse is reported to be more common along the Coastal region and the Southern part
of the country.  Cannabis and amphetamine preparations are abused mainly in rural areas (U.N. 1991). 
      According to a 1989 survey among students and other out of school youth, urban youth tend to abuse
drugs more than their rural counterparts (Preventive Education 1992).

Heroin and cocaine are abused mainly in urban centres. Cannabis is abused in the coastal region.
Hallucinogen abuse is reported in the main cities. Methaqualone and tranquilizers are abused in most
regions (Mwenesi Abdullah Halima 1995). 
      Khat is used to varying degrees in Kenya, but its abuse is concentrated in the North Eastern and Coast
provinces, especially among the Muslim population (Haji A.R.J.1983).

No information reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December 1994.

Illicit drugs, unlike alcohol, are abused more in urban centres than in rural areas (U.N. 1992). 
      Heroin ("brown sugar") is used mainly in urban, sub-urban regions and tourist spots, though it is
spreading to the villages (EFDR 1993).  Cannabis usage predominates in rural villages.  But as
Mauritius is a small island, much overlapping occurs (U.N. 1993).


Newly available drugs in the illicit market tend to be mainly abused in Northern cities (such as Tanger
and Tיtouan) and sporadically, in Casablanca and Marrakech (U.N. 1991). The abuse of heroin and cocaine
is relatively high in certain cities at the Northern border of the country (U.N. 1993).

No information reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December 1993.

The use of cocaine and heroin is more prevalent in the large cities of the country (U.N. 1992, 1993). 
      The degree of variation in the pattern of drug use in the different parts of the country is not very
significant, except for alcohol use, which is more prevalent in the South and cigarette smoking, which
is more predominant in the North. Drug abusers from the North tend to be from less educated background
when compared to drug abusers from the South (U.N. 1993).

Drugs are abused mainly in urban areas (CMO 1989; Interpol 1993).

Drugs are reported to be abused mainly in urban areas (U.N. 1987). 
      The rate of illicit drug consumption varies according to regions: consumption is the highest in
Kaolack (21.5 per cent take at least one drug), followed closely by Fatick (20.9 per cent), Louga (17.2
per cent), Saint Louis (15.5 per cent) and Diourbel (14.9 per cent) (UNESCO 1988).

South Africa
Previously, drug abuse was mainly manifested in metropolitan areas, but it is now reported to be
increasing in rural areas (U.N. 1993).

Cannabis is consumed in the central area of Sudan as well as in the south.  Other drugs are mostly
abused in Khartoum (U.N. 1991). 
      Although the plant "Argemone Mexicana" grows in different areas of the country, it is particularly
abundant in the northern regions (U.N. 1991).

In rural areas, consumption of alcohol and local brews is done extensively.  The Police narcotic
section reports a high prevalence of drug abuse in places like Kampala, Arua Mbale, Entebbe, Jinja,
Mbarara and most urban centres (EFDR 1993).

United Republic of Tanzania
Heroin abuse is more prevalent in Dar es Salaam (U.N. 1991).  Cannabis abuse is common among both rural
peasants and unemployed urban youngsters.  Abuse of amphetamines and sedatives is most common among the urban population (U.N. 1990).

According to data from the 1990 Annual Reports Questionnaire, there are more cannabis abusers in urban
areas than in rural areas (U.N. 1990).  However, traditional and cultural use is also common in rural
communities (U.N. 1988).

No information available.