National Strategies

Burkina Faso
A National Plan for Drug Abuse Control was to be drafted, according to 1991 reports (CMO 1991). 
An Inter-Ministerial Committee Against Drugs was established in 1992.

In 1992, an inter ministerial Committee was created to coordinate governmental action against drug
abuse. A revision of the legislation is planned to incorporate preventive measures (Chad; CEEAC; INCB

Cote D'Ivoire
An Inter-Ministerial Committee for Drug Abuse Control (CILAD) was established in 1982 and is
coordinating drug policies and activities with regard to demand reduction and prevention (U.N. 1989).
Cote d'Ivoire's counternarcotics effort is coordinated by the National Drug Police (INCSR 1993).

A National Council for Drug Dependency was established, with representatives from a broad range of
disciplines such as health, social, environmental, religious and youth affairs. The Council has members
from the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Interior. The main task of the council was to revise
the existing narcotic law and introduce amendments (Gad, 1989). 
      Egypt has also signed bilateral and multilateral conventions for strengthening direct co-operation
with several countries.  Since 1930, Egypt has participated in UN narcotics control activities, the
League of Nations, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the UN Sub-commission on Illicit Drug Traffic and
Related Matters in Near and Middle East and HONLEA Africa (UNDCP CPF 1993). 
      A multisectorial project focused on law enforcement, as well as, on prevention and treatment and
rehabilitation was initiated in 1993.  Another law enforcement project to complement previous UNDCP
assistance in this sector and to extend the mobility of the Anti-Drug General Administration (ANGA)
also started in 1993.  The possibility of preparing a Masterplan in collaboration with the Government
is being considered (SPF 1993). 
      Egyptian laws severely penalize drug abusers, including capital punishment for both producers and
traffickers of "hard" drugs such as heroin.  Egyptian laws also provide for the seizure of
"unexplained" assets.  The law is not specifically designed to deal with narcotics activities, but drug
enforcement officials can refer suspects to a special prosecutor who determines whether the evidence
merits asset seizure.  Seized property can be held for up to five years and then is returned if the
accused has not engaged in further suspected illegal activities. The Government of Egypt maintains an
active interdiction programme at Cairo International Airport, but has no programme to interdict
shipments passing through the Suez Canal (INCSR 1993). 
      In 1990, a multisectorial project was signed by the government and UNDCP.  Its four main objectives
are: (a) to support the implementation of a national drug abuse control plan; (b) to increase public
awareness about the harmful effects of drug abuse and trafficking on the individual and community,
using the system of Social Defence Clubs; (c) to provide national institutions with adequate facilities
for treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers; (d) to enhance control over pharmaceutical
containing narcotics and psychotropic substances.  The project's overall objective is the reduction of
illicit drug consumption through prevention, treatment and rehabilitation programmes and through
adequate control measures for narcotics and psychotropic drugs (UNDCP CPF 1993).


An Ad-Hoc Committee on Drug Control was established in 1991, chaired by the Ministry of Health
(Pharmacy Department).  The Committee includes representatives from the ministries of Education,
Information, Interior (Police), Justice, Labor and Social Affairs, Foreign Affairs, Attorney General
and Customs and Excise. In 1993, a National Health Policy was drafted (Forum 1993). 
      Efforts were made to tax khat vendors heavily, in order to reduce sales. Some shops were closed.  On
University Campus, students were not allowed to chew khat in their dormitories (EFDR 1993).

The national strategy consists of demand reduction activities such as anti-drug campaigns and
legislative measures (MOH 1992; Mounguengui 1990). 
      A Commission for the Fight Against Drug Abuse was created in 1991 under the Ministry of Health.  It is
responsible for epidemiological studies on drug abuse, training, prevention, treatment and
rehabilitation activities.  It is also responsible for coordinating national and international
activities related to drug abuse.  An Inter-Ministerial Committee Against Drug Abuse in coordination
with UNDCP was also created in March 1992 (MOH 1992; Gabon 1992a).  
      The Central Anti-Drug Office (l'OCLAD), which was created in 1990, has as its mission to control drug
trafficking, but also to train enforcement staff in the Police, Gendarmerie and Customs (Gabon 1992a).

      The number of awareness workshops in the national and the sub-regional levels were increased and  a
toxicology laboratory was created.  Another change in the legislative plan deals with control of
supply. At the level of incrimination, a distinction between the offence of use and that of production
and of drug trafficking was introduced.  The reform also aims to control money laundering.  The
production and manufacturing of drugs became a crime to be punished by forced labor (Gabon 1992a). 
      The first National Seminar on drug problems organized by the Ministry of National Defence took place
in Libreville in June 1989 (CEEAC 1990).

Under current Ghanaian drug laws, possession or trafficking of any type of narcotics is subject to a
mandatory ten-year prison sentence and, where applicable, asset seizure and forfeiture. The Government
aggressively enforces the laws.  The Narcotics Control Board (NCB) has recommended amendment in the
legislation, to permit that 50 per cent of seized assets be used in support of counternarcotics efforts
(INCSR 1993).

According to a 1993 report to the Demand Reduction Forum held in Nairobi, there is no national body
responsible for the coordination of a national drug strategy. However, the development of a national
drug policy and the formation of a multi-disciplinary task force are planned in relation to legislation
awaiting ratification by the parliament (Baya, C.K. 1993). 
      Notwithstanding the above, existing supply and demand reduction programmes are managed by law
enforcement and the Ministry of Health independently. In the area of demand reduction, programmes are
centrally coordinated by the Preventive Health Education Against Drug Abuse unit in the Ministry of
Health (Baya, C.K. 1993).

As a response to a large increase in drug consumption, the Ministries of Public Health and Social
Affairs, Justice, National Education and Information set up a National Committee in 1981, to develop a
programme to reduce supply and demand for drugs (Mali- Year unknown). 
      The new elected government declared that it would give high priority to the fight against narcotics
production and trafficking and established an antidrug police unit (INCSR 1993).

The National Advisory and Research Council on Drug Addiction (NARCODA) was set up under the
Chairmanship of the Ministry of Health in 1986, with representatives of various Ministries, Departments
and public and private sectors agencies.  NARCODA's role is to coordinate anti-drug activities, carry
out research, assess the prevention and treatment programmes and make appropriate recommendations,
develop and disseminate information, formulate policies and advise the government and other agencies on
 measures to deal with the drug problem (HONLEA 1993). 
      Since 1993, a National High Powered Committee chaired by the Prime Minister has been set up to deal
with matters relating to both demand and supply.  It consists of high officials from the Prime
Minister's Office, the Crown Law Office, the Anti Drug & Smuggling Unit (ADSU), the Customs Department,
and the Chairman of NARCODA (EFDR 1993; Mission 1994). 
      The Trust Fund for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts was set up in 1986 to minimize, if
not eradicate, the adverse socio-economic consequences of drug abuse through prevention, treatment and
rehabilitation and to improve the health and general welfare of the Mauritian nation.  It functions as
a parastatal body under the aegis of the Ministry of Social Security, National Solidarity and Reform
Institutions (HONLEA 1993). 
      The repression of illicit drugs in Mauritius is mainly carried out by  ADSU.  The latter cooperates
closely with the Customs Department at the seaport, at the airport and at the Central Parcel Post and
with the Forest Department (Mission 1993).

A National Committee Against Drug Abuse was created in 1977, comprising representatives from various
ministries.  A National Plan of Action has also been elaborated (Morocco 1993).

In November 1991, an Inter-Ministerial Drug Committee was established, with representatives from all
ministries and relevant non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The committee aims to coordinate
activities relating to the prevention of drug abuse and the treatment and rehabilitation of drug
dependent abusers (Namibia 1993).

The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), established in 1989, is the governmental drug related
policy making body. It coordinates all activities in the field of drug supply and demand reduction. 
The NDLEA is composed of four directorates, of which 3 deal with supply reduction and one with demand
reduction (Nigeria 1991).

The collection of drug related data is carried out by the Ministry of Justice, the Central Information
Service (Kigali National Central Bureau, Interpol), the National Gendarmerie, the Central Records
Service and the Customs Services (CMO 1989). 
      An anti-drug brigade has been created consisting of technical staff from various departments, as well
as, ministries involved in drug control matters.  This brigade was reported not yet in operation in
1992 (INCB 1992). 
      The need for an epidemiological study on the extent and patterns of drug abuse in Rwanda has been
expressed by the government (INCB 1992).  Registers of drug producers, sellers and abusers are reported
to be kept since 1987 and an in-depth study on the abuse of drugs in Rwanda was to be carried out in
1990 with the financial assistance of UNESCO (CMO 1989).

The Narcotics Commission ("la Comission des Stupefiants"), created in 1985, was reactivated in 1987 and
since then it is headed by the Minister of the Interior and represented by 11 ministers.  It meets
once every three months.  The commission elaborated, in 1987, the project of National Strategy of fight
against illicit traffic and drug abuse, which includes activities related to prevention, demand and
supply reduction, suppression of illicit traffic and treatment of drug dependent abusers (Mission 1989;
Note de Projet- year unknown).

South Africa
Drug control policy is coordinated by the Drug Advisory Board, according to the Prevention and
Treatment of the Drug Dependency Act. The Drug Advisory Board was preceded by the National Advisory
Board on Rehabilitation matters (NABOR) which functioned until December 1992 (INCB 1993). The South
African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence coordinates prevention activities at the
national level (U.N. 1993). The National Information System for Social Welfare (NISWEL) is the national
drug data collection focal point. Hospitals, the Central Statistics Service and various government
authorities also collect drug related data (U.N. 1993).

The Government of Sudan recently began to take a serious interest in narcotics matters, and is
addressing eradication, prosecution, and treatment.  In 1989, it established a Drug Combat
Administration (DCA).  The Government is drafting a new narcotics law which will for the first time
deal with synthetic drugs and drug treatment, and lower the penalty for first time users.  Repeat
violators of anti-trafficking laws, however, can be hanged; two drug dealers have been hung since the
government took power in 1989 (INCSR 1993).

The 1970 Pharmacy and Drugs Act is used to control the use of narcotics in Uganda. Fines prescribed in
the penal provisions of this act have not been revised since 1970; their effect is reduced due to the
devaluation of the Ugandan currency (Uganda 1991). 
      In 1987, the Uganda Police Force set up the Anti-Narcotics Unit within the Criminal Investigation
Department, leading to several seizures (Uganda 1991).

United Republic of Tanzania
An Inter-ministerial Coordinating Committee on Drug Abuse Control includes law enforcement, mass media,
social welfare, city councils, health, home affairs, foreign affairs, justice, pharmacy, government
chemist, education and community development. The committee coordinates exchange of information, and
policy and programmes development. Further, it aims to facilitate communications between all parties
working in the field of drug abuse control (EFDR 1993).According to U.N. reports, drug dependence among
youth from affluent background leads some to selling family valuables to maintain their habit,
resulting in strained family relations. Concern is also reported over reduction of productivity in
business and costly treatment of the abusers (U.N. 1991). 
      Tanzania has legislation relating to seizure and forfeiture of proceeds from drug trafficking and
money laundering (Tanzania 1993).



A new Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances bill was approved in parliament in 1993, in conformity
with the U.N. Convention of 1988. The bill aims to deprive drug traffickers of the proceeds of their
criminal activities, thereby eliminating the main incentive for trafficking. The bill also revises and
consolidates the law relating to illicit use and dealing of drugs, introducing stiffer penalties for
persons abusing and dealing drugs (UNDCP 1993a). 
      The Drug Enforcement Commission (DEC), which was formed as a coordinating body to combat alcohol and
drug abuse, was given the authority to deal with all drug related matters in Zambia including law
enforcement and education (U.N. 1990; UNDCP 1993a). 
      Interdiction efforts have been intensified and Zambia is redoubling its fight against drug trafficking
and related issues.  Efforts are also being made to further strengthen the DEC (Zambia 1992). 
      The National Education Campaign Division (NECD) has sprung from the endeavors of the ILO implemented
project aiming at the development of Resource Centres for alcohol and drug abuse and at the prevention
of workplace related problems (UNDCP 1993a).

No information available.