Drug Abuse in the Global Village
Supply Source of Drugs

Burkina Faso
Heroin trafficking is increasing. India is reported to be the main source. Most heroin is transported
overland to neighbouring countries and Nigeria (U.N. 1989, 1990). 
      Cannabis is cultivated mainly in border areas, in the region of Bobo-Dioulasso and of Borono (La
Depeche 1994).

No information reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December 1993. 
      According to sources from the "Brigade des Stupefiants", Colombian heroin, in transit through Nigeria
and Chad is increasing (U.N. 1992).

Cote D'Ivoire
Heroin is imported mainly from India, Pakistan and Thailand (Mission 1991). 
      South America constitutes the main supply source of cocaine.   Despite the reduction of the
possibilities of bringing cocaine into the country, which was caused by the suppression of the aerial
line Rio de Janeiro-Abidjan, the drug is still brought to Lagos and then to Cote d'Ivoire through Ghana
and Togo.   Another supplier of cocaine and heroin is Lebanon (Mission 1991). 
      Cannabis is grown in Eastern Cote d'Ivoire in small quantities for local consumption.  Production in
1992 appears to be relatively unchanged from previous years (INCSR 1993). 
      The illicit traffic of psychotropic substances originate mainly from Europe (from countries such as
France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Bulgaria), according to some reports. However, supporting
evidence to determine exact sources is lacking. Amphetamines and barbiturates dominate this clandestine
market.  Diversion of licit drugs to the illicit market, through thefts from pharmacies, is also
reported (Mission 1991). 
      Cote d'Ivoire concentrated its efforts on reducing the use of Abidjan's airport as a narcotics transit
point and as a supply point for domestic drug abuse (INCSR 1993).

Egypt's geographical location makes it an ideal transit area for illicit drugs en route from producing
countries in Southeastern and Southwestern Asia to consuming countries in Africa, Europe and North
America through the Suez Canal and via Cairo International Airport.  Illicit drugs are smuggled into
Egypt mainly in the following ways: (1) by sea across its coasts and Ports on the Mediterranean, Red
Sea and Suez Canal Gulf; (2) by land across its international borders from East, West and South; (3) by
 air through the country's several airports. 
      Recently, an increase in transporting heroin consignments from Turkey to Libya by air and from there
to Egypt by land has been observed.  In addition, a new route has been discovered for the smuggling of
illicit drugs from Karachi into Cairo via Lagos and Dubai (UNDCP CPF 1993). 
      Lebanon is the principal supplier of Cannabis for domestic Egyptian consumption (INCSR 1993). 
The Gulf War (1990-1991) had a remarkable effect in shifting the smuggling routes of huge Lebanese
cannabis consignments from Egypt's Eastern coastal areas and borders over to its Northern and Western
coasts.  Through the porous Libyan land border, drugs are smuggled into Egypt, despite the efforts of
the drug enforcement agencies (UNDCP CPF 1993). 
      Egypt is not a major drug producing country.  Domestic cultivation of opium poppy is almost entirely
restricted to the arable land along the Nile River.  The Government of Egypt conducts a yearly
eradication programme during the winter harvest.  The fertile Northern Delta poses the greatest
potential for significant cultivation, but its dense population and good communication, discourage
large-scale, clandestine cultivation (INCSR 1993). 
      Cannabis is the most cultivated drug in Egypt (UNDCP CPF 1993).


Khat is cultivated for commercial distribution in parts of Ethiopia and Kenya.  Ethiopian harvests are
exported to Northern Somalia, Djibouti and across the Red Sea to Yemen (Canada 1992). The Harrarghe
region of Ethiopia is now universally believed to be the main source of khat. Nowadays, khat is grown
not only in Harrarghe, but, also, in various other regions of Ethiopia, such as Shoa, Keffa, Wello,
Arsi and Sidamo (EFDR 1993).  
      Lack of control, particularly with regard to drugs, has made Ethiopian Airlines an attractive means of
transporting illegal products to other markets.  Nigerian and other couriers regularly bring narcotics
out of Southwest and Southeast Asia through Addis Ababa for onward shipment to Western Europe and the
U.S. (INCSR 1993). 
      Traffickers were found choosing the Ethiopian Airlines as a carrier and Addis Ababa a transit point
for drugs to and from Asia, Europe, the Far and Middle East, as well as, other parts of the world. 
This may be due to the fact that increased surveillance in other parts of Africa and harsher
punishments have caused traffickers to change their routes to countries, like Ethiopia, that were
previously not seriously affected by transit traffic (Report 1991).

Cannabis grows in the wild in Gabon.  It is also cultivated for traditional use, as well as for
commercial purposes. In seven out of the nine provinces, there are large cannabis plantations. Cannabis
trafficking also takes place, especially from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria.  Psychotropic
substances, heroin and cocaine are smuggled by air or through the sea from Nigeria (HONLEA 1993; Gabon
1992a).  Heroin is reported to originate mainly from Pakistan (Mounguengui 1990). It has been reported
also that heroin is imported via Nairobi, Lagos and sometimes Brazzaville, whereas cocaine is believed
to be trafficked through Dakar or Abidjan, via Lagos, to Libreville, both by air and maritime routes
(Gabon 1992a).

Cannabis is the only drug illegally cultivated in Ghana (INCSR 1993).  It is grown throughout the
country, but particularly in the forest area (U.N. 1991).  Cannabis that is not consumed locally is
smuggled by truck or boat to Togo, Ivory Coast, Angola, and the Canary Islands (INCSR 1993). 
      Drug trafficking in Ghana is increasing, but Ghanaian enforcement resources remain insufficient. 
Smuggling is carried out by couriers and in cargo.  According to Ghanaian Customs, European nationals
are becoming involved in the local trade which has been dominated by Ghanaians and Nigerians (INCSR
      Some heroin is abused in Ghana, but most is transshipped to the U.S. and Europe.  According to
Ghanaian authorities, traffickers get their supplies from Thailand, Hong Kong, Nigeria, and Cote
d'Ivoire; they enter the Ghana-Togo, Ghana-Cote d'Ivoire land borders or by air through Accra
International Airport.  Arrests at the Ghana-Togo border and Accra airport indicate the carriers are
most frequently connected with Nigerian drug trafficking organizations.  The Togolese connection is
also significant.  Recent arrests by Ghana Customs also indicate that between 150-200 Ghanaians,
ostensibly stranded in Bangkok, while in route to purported jobs in Korea and Japan, are in fact
dealing in heroin.  They have used express mail firms to send parcels containing drugs to contacts in
Ghana (INCSR 1993). 
      Drug traffickers opened new routes from Ghana to Europe and the U.S. in 1992.  Presumably because of
tighter airport enforcement measures at U.S. and U.K. airports, some narcotics shipments were sent from
Ghana to Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands, for trafficking to European countries. Ghanaian
traffickers have begun travelling to Rio de Janeiro via Nigeria to obtain cocaine.  These traffickers,
usually with Nigerian backing, are organized into small syndicated and act as agents for local
distribution or export (INCSR 1993).


Small quantities of cannabis are reported to be locally grown (INCSR 1993).

Cannabis is locally cultivated; a very limited quantity is obtained from abroad (mainly from
neighbouring countries).  Cannabis resin coming from Europe has been discovered in some cases.  Heroin
and opium originate from Asia (HONLEA 1991).  Heroin in form of "brown sugar" is mainly imported from
Asian countries, principally from Bombay, India by air courier.  Occasional seizures from Pakistan via
middle-east or from Nairobi, Kenya has been reported.  Couriers are almost always Indians with
occasional Africans.  No apparent problem with Nigerians has been detected.  Sea trafficking could be a
problem, although at this stage there is no evidence from either within the island or from source or
receiver countries that Mauritius is yet being used.  Use of Mauritius as a transit point for South
Africa (particularly for "Mandrax" or heroin) or Europe is not yet established; however, both outward
airport and seaport controls are minimal, so it is possible (Mission 1994).  There is, as yet, no
strong evidence of a transit trade, using Mauritius as a conduit from the Indian sub-continent and
South-West Asia to both Southern Africa and Western Europe (Mission 1994). 
      Psychotropic substances are mainly imported by air passengers, through Posts and 40% of the whole
illicit trade is obtained through licit channels (Mission 1993).

At the micro level, a study among students found that drugs were obtained primarily from friends
(55.1%), from small dealers (25.3) and traffickers (17.4%). All small scale dealers were males, between
14 to 25 years of age, and occasionally, as young as 10 years old. They come from neglected homes,
often fatherless, with a poor school record and in need for a source of income (Lamasouri 1993). 
     Morocco is one of the world's largest producers of cannabis.  It is mostly produced by small farmers in
the Rif Mountain region in Northern Morocco, although some production also occurs in the Souss Valley
in the South (INCSR 1993).  Most of it is processed into hashish resin or oil and exported to Europe. 
About 27.2 percent of the cannabis consumed in Europe,  originates in Morocco according to Interpol
sources cited by Lamsaouiri in a 1993 report. Moroccan cannabis products also flow into Algeria and
Tunisia for consumption or in transit to Europe (INCSR 1993). 
      Cannabis cultivation in Morocco is increasing. The area under cultivation is estimated at 50,000
hectares, according to a 1993 official report.  This is attributed to increased returns associated with
 illicit crops.  Governmental sources report that Morocco has become also a transit country for drug
trafficking to Europe (Morocco 1993). 
      Interpol also reported in 1990 that international illicit traffic in cannabis has increased and become
 better organized.  Morocco and Lebanon remain the principal sources of cannabis resin seized in Europe
 (CPF 1993). 
      Until mid-1992, most cocaine traffickers arrested in Morocco, who arrived to Casablanca airport on
flights from Latin America, were, in most cases, in transit to Spain and Portugal, and perhaps further
into Europe.  Arrests of cocaine traffickers in the Tangier area increased in 1992.  Government
officials suspect that Morocco is becoming a transit centre for West Africans, particularly Senegalese,
traffickers of cocaine, mainly through Casablanca to Europe. Traffickers from Latin America and West
Africa traveling through Morocco to Europe by air, use sea shipment into the ports of Casablanca and
Tangier, and a combination of trucks and boats to Spanish territories.  According to U.S.A. reports,
small quantities of heroin, presumably of Middle Eastern origin, transit through Morocco and Algeria to
Spain and France  (INCSR 1993).

Cannabis is locally grown for local consumption as well as trafficked from and through Namibia to
neighboring countries. During 1992, the estimated area of cannabis cultivation was around 3 hectares
and the estimated yield of plant per hectare was 280 kg.  The estimated total annual production was 61
kg (Namibia 1993). 
      Mandrax tablets are imported from Southern neighboring countries.  Namibia, furthermore, is used as a
transit country for this drug by Eastern producing countries (HONLEA 1993). 
      Border control has weakened since Independence and trafficking from South Africa and Zambia through
Namibia has been reported, especially, cannabis, methaqualone, heroin and cocaine (U.N. 1991).

Cannabis is grown extensively in some parts of Nigeria.  Illicit traffic of large quantities of
"Pemoline" is continuing into Nigeria, in spite of the prohibition of import of the substance in 1990
(Nigeria 1993). 
      Nigeria is a transit country for Asian heroin (from India, Pakistan and Afghanistan) and a focal point
for most West African heroin trafficking.  Large quantities of South American cocaine are entering
Nigeria, primarily through Brazil (Nigeria 1993). 
      Heroin enters Nigeria by air through four main air routes: India-Kenya-Nigeria, possibly through
Gabon, India-Ethiopia-Nigeria, Pakistan-Egypt-Nigeria and India-Bulgaria-Nigeria.  Recent seizures of
white heroin suggest the opening of new trafficking routes linking Thailand to Nigeria.  There are
indications suggesting that important shipments of heroin reach Nigeria by sea (Nigeria 1994).

Cannabis is grown in Rwanda, but the extent has not been determined.  The authorities have learned from
arrested drug traffickers that in addition to local sources, cannabis is trafficked from neighboring
countries (Uganda, Tanzania and Zaire).  It is believed that Rwanda is a transit point for cocaine
traffickers too (Rwanda 1993). 
      Heroin traffickers based in Nairobi began to recruit citizens of Rwanda as drug smugglers around 1989.
At about the same time the airport of Kigari (Kanombe) began to be used as a transit point for heroin
obtained in Nairobi and intended for Belgian and French clandestine markets.  Since then control
efforts have been increased at the airport (Rwanda 1993).

Cannabis is locally cultivated, mainly along the northern border of Gambia and in the marshy
Iles-du-Saloum.  Senegalese cannabis is reportedly not considered of good quality (i.e., high potency).
It has been reported that cannabis of better quality, called "Lopito", is imported from Mauritania,
Mali and Cote d'Ivoire.  It has also been suggested that Senegalese cannabis is processed into "Lopito"
in Gambia (INCSR 1993; Mission 1989). 
      Senegal has become an increasingly important transit point, in recent years, for Asian heroin bound
for the North American and European markets.  The principal air trafficking routes are the Bombay-Addis
Abada-Dakar with Ethiopian Airlines flights and flights to or through Lagos and Abidjan.  Senegalese
nationals are increasingly found in the international drug trade, as evidenced by the growing number
involved in both fraudulent documentation and drug-related cases in France, Germany and Italy. 
Moroccan authorities have also identified growing numbers of Senegalese traffickers transiting Morocco.
Nigerian nationals continue to lead the list of narcotics offenders in Senegal (INCSR 1993). 
      Psychotropic substances reach Senegal via Gambia from Bulgaria and Hungary.  Opiates reach Senegal
from Asia, and cocaine from Latin America (U.N. 1989).

South Africa
South Africa has become a transit country to Europe, for drugs such as methaqualone. Some of the drugs
are consumed locally (U.N. 1992).  Reports suggest that, during the past two years, a number of
controlled deliveries of LSD, cannabis and methaqualone have been effected between Europe and South
Africa (ICPO/Interpol 1993). U.N. reports confirm drug trafficking activities, especially methaqualone,
cocaine and heroin (U.N. 1993). 
      South Africa is considered a significant cannabis producer, according to a mission report. Some is
also imported from neighboring countries (e.g. Lesotho and Swaziland), but most is locally produced
(UNDCP 1994). 
      Illicit trafficking in and the abuse of methaqualone is significant in South Africa. It is believed
that most methaqualone seized in South Africa originates from India, but some is locally produced.  It
is difficult to estimate the proportion of the local production (INCB 1993). 
      The principal sources of cocaine are Brazil, among other South American countries. Cocaine trafficking
via Angola and West Africa is increasing.  Heroin is imported mainly from South East and South West
Asia, often via Zambia.  And LSD originates predominantly from UK and, to a lesser extent, from the USA
(UNDCP 1994).

Cannabis is cultivated in a number of provinces in Sudan, and traditional methods are used for
preparing it for smoking. It is cultivated in commercial quantities in the south of Darfur (the largest
producing area in Sudan), south of Blue Nile, at El-Gadaref and in the Upper Nile and Bahr El-Ghazal
regions (Sudan 1993). 
      Sudan is a transit country connecting the Arab and African regions (Sudan 1993).

Opium home production in rural areas has decreased, while increased home production of cannabis is
reported. Cannabis is grown and packed for local consumption as well as for illicit traffic (U.N. 1991;
Uganda 1991). 
      Uganda has become a transit country for drug trafficking. Traffickers from various countries,
including Ugandans travel to South-East Asia (India and Pakistan) where they obtain heroin, mandrax and
other drugs which they then transit through Uganda to Kenya, Southern Africa and Europe (Uganda 1991).
      Some heroin and hashish are shipped from South Asia and Europe through Kampala's Entebbe Airport to
South Africa (INCSR 1993). 
      In Kampala City, drugs are available in slums such as Katwe, Kisenyi, Owino, Namuwongo and Kalerwe, as
well as railway stations.  Transit points such as airports and border entry points, provide additional
opportunities for trafficking of drugs such as cocaine, heroin and opium (EFDR 1993).

United Republic of Tanzania
Cannabis and khat are locally grown and available in the local markets (Tanzania 1993). 
Tanzania is increasingly used as a transit point by drug traffickers for both heroin and cocaine. Two
networks were established, from Pakistan and India, through Syria, Lebanon and Djibouti, to East Africa
 including Tanzania and to South Africa. The Immigration Department is trying to discourage the use of
Tanzania as a transit point for drug traffickers, and is working with other organs to disrupt drug
trafficking networks (Pasape, J.E. 1989).

Zambia has been a transit country for illicit narcotic drugs for many years. Methaqualone (mandrax), is
smuggled from Eastern Africa and India for distribution in South Africa (ICPO 1993).  Illicit
methaqualone trafficking and cultivation of cannabis are increasing.  The increase in drug trafficking
is attributed to an economic downturn. Methaqualone has become a medium of exchange for imported
manufactured goods according to some reports (Zambia 1992).   
      Zambia is a transit country for heroin smuggled from Kenya and Tanzania. There are concerns about
increased heroin abuse as a result of transit trafficking (U.N. 1990; Zambia 1992; UNDCP 1993a). 
      Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine in transit to markets in Europe and North America by
West Africans using Zambian travel documents is a growing concern (INCSR 1993).


No information available.