Drug Abuse in the Global Village
 Primary Prevention in Africa

Burkina Faso
Drug prevention activities are carried out by the Ministry of Health and an organization named ABUPAT.
These activities are targeted at the population as a whole, with special focus on youth.  
      Media activities in 1989 and 1991, a radio interview programme regarding drug abuse was aired. Other
drug prevention activities have included television educational programmes and newspaper articles.
November 25th has been declared the National Anti-Drugs Day (U.N. 1989; CMO 1991). The national Radio
and Television broadcast anti-drugs educational programmes, targeting youth especially (U.N. 1993). 
      Drug prevention education workshops and presentations are carried out in selected secondary schools
but no official programme has been established (U.N. 1993).

Religious groups conduct drug prevention activities, targeting their respective faithful (U.N. 1992). 
      Drug abusers in the work place are dealt with through sanctions such as salary suspension, fines and
in some cases dismissal (CMO 1989)

Cote D'Ivoire
Drug prevention education has been carried out in schools and universities as part of the national
curricula since 1984.  Drug prevention education is provided in the national languages. Medical
professionals, police, teachers and social workers are trained in drug preventive education through the
Inter-Ministerial Committee for Drug Abuse Control. Since 1988, a drug prevention campaign has been
carried out annually for a duration of one week. A National Committee of Youth Against Drug and Alcohol
Abuse has been created (U.N. 1989).

In response to increasing needs in the fields of drug abuse prevention and the treatment and
rehabilitation of drug-dependent persons, the Government of Egypt has taken several decisive steps,
including the establishment of a national coordination council for drug abuse matters and a special
committee for treatment and rehabilitation (SPF 1993). 
Primary Prevention 
     Mass media actively promote drug prevention programmes (U.N. 1989a). 
     Drug awareness programmes target different levels of education (in schools and universities) (U.N.
      Community level prevention activities have been undertaken by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry
of Social Affairs.  Intensified activities aim to increase the awareness of drug related harms among
community leaders, as well as the community level. Frequent visits to the Social Defense Club of the
Ministry of Social Affairs are organized for drug abusers (U.N. 1989a). 
      PRIDE International of Egypt, the only private organization in the country devoted to prevention,
conducts broad public awareness campaigns.  In 1993, a drug-free work-place programme for factory
managers and employees was planned to be implemented by this organization (INCSR 1993).


During the last few years, the media have been active in promoting drug prevention campaigns, which
included video shows on television in 1992, interviews on radio in 1993 and 1994, newspapers' articles
in 1994, and drama performances about cannabis abusers in 1994.  Formal mechanisms of collaboration
exist between the media and each of the following: health professionals, law enforcement agencies,
private companies, and ministries (U.N. 1993). 
      Drug education programmes reported consist of training of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, other health
workers, and social workers (U.N. 1993). 
      Youth groups participate in drug prevention activities, such as workshops and seminars (U.N. 1993). 
The Ministry of Education has been combating drug abuse by introducing prevention education concerning
the danger of smoking and drinking alcohol in formal and informal education (Report 1991).

The media actively promote drug prevention programmes.  Interviews, entertainment and other drug
related programmes are broadcasted on television and on radio.  The important role of the media in
heightening public awareness was emphasized by the success of the national and international
broadcasting of the Celebration of the UN International Anti-Drug Day, in Libreville, on the 26th of
June, 1992 (Gabon 1992a).  The Ministry of Health has also launched an information campaign on drug
abuse through television, radio and the press (Mounguengui 1990). 
      Drug prevention have been held in schools since March 1990 (Gabon 1992b).  NGOs are involved in
educational activities to promote health and prevent drug abuse.  Conferences for parents are organized
by the Rotary Club in schools and colleges (Mounguengui 1990).

The mass media actively promote drug prevention campaigns, in the form of news interviews and panel
discussions on television and radio (initiated in 1990), news features and pictures in newspapers
(since 1990), films on the effects of drugs, street concerts and exhibitions (U.N. 1992, 1993).  The
media, gathers information informally from health professionals, private companies and government
sources. Seminars are occasionally organized for the media by law enforcement agencies for briefing on
drug related information (U.N. 1993). 
      Special programmes are developed for illiterate people, such as drama programmes on television in the
local languages and street concerts staged by community health nurses (U.N. 1992). 
      Drug education activities are held in secondary schools and higher education students.  These
activities include inter-school debates on drug abuse issues, guidance and counselling on prevention
education on drug abuse, life skill training for youth in schools, the formation of anti-drug abuse
clubs, lectures, film shows, and visits to psychiatric hospitals to see the effects of drug abuse (CMO
1991; U.N. 1992,1993). 
      International assistance for developing educational programmes has been provided by UNDCP and UNESCO (U.N. 1992). 
      Basic and further training courses on drug education is given to the following professional groups:
doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and other health workers (U.N. 1993).  Teachers, were also trained, in
some regions, on drug abuse prevention activities (U.N. 1992). 
      A number of community organizations are involved in prevention activities, such as, Parent Teacher
Associations, Medical Students Associations, Church Organizations, Market Women Associations, Ghana
Private Road Transport Union and Nurses in Training (CMO 1991). 
      In 1992, the Government of Ghana held an international day against drug abuse and illicit trafficking
which included school programmes, a radio and television contest, as well as public lectures on the
effects of drug abuse.  A two-day workshop was held in Accra in September with the participation of 15
government agencies and NGOs (INCSR 1993).


According to a 1994 rapid assessment, representatives of education authorities reported that they do
not have clear policies as to how to deal with drug abusers within the educational system, except by
dismissing them from their institutions. Most report being constrained by lack of information, training
and funds (Mwenesi Abdullah Halima 1995). 
      Some aspects of drug education are covered in subjects such as Home Education (Dullin Eberhard 1994).

      Further, there is evidence that some health NGOs are involved in prevention activities (Preventive
Health Education Against Drug Abuse Programme, Undated).

The Social Committee of the National Executive Bureau of Youth has prepared brochures on drug abuse
targeted at young students.  The Malian Association for Help to the Mentally Ill has also developed a
programme of information and consciousness raising for the district of Bamako.  The programme consists
of films produced by the mental hygiene section, followed by debates and playlets on the types of
dramas that may be caused by drug consumption. Campaigns, on the theme "madness and drug abuse", aimed
at young unemployed persons, students, as well as drivers, laborers and farmers have been promoted. 
Further campaigns are planned aiming to reach abusers and encourage them to seek help and treatment
(Mali - Year unknown). 
      Emphasis has been placed on the training of police, doctors, jurists, and teachers (Mali -Year

Different sections of the media have been active in promoting drug prevention messages.  Video clips,
films, and sketches based on the dangers of substance abuse are often shown on television.  Debate
programmes are broadcasted on the radio.  Magazines have reports on ex-drug abusers and alcohol
dependents, as well as on the role of rehabilitation centres for drug abusers.  A two-hour-length play
for youth and adults was performed in 1991.  In 1992-93, posters with messages against substance abuse
were also created.  Formal collaboration exists between public relations officers of various ministries
 and the media (U.N. 1993). 
      The Ministry of Education and Sciences has set up an Anti-Drug and Health Education Unit to provide
drug education to students at all levels and to train teachers in the Health and Anti-Drug Education
Curriculum.  The Fund is organizing regional exhibits in colleges and the programmes will be extended
to workplaces (HONLEA 1993).  These programmes include ideograph, talks, forums, pamphlets, posters,
and film shows (U.N. 1992, 1993). 
      At the University of Mauritius, lectures on Substance Abuse form part of the Diploma in Social Work
(U.N. 1993). 
      Drug education programmes in the form of basic training is provided for the following professional
groups: doctors, nurses, pharmacists, other health workers, social workers (also further training
courses for the latter), teachers, and law enforcement personnel (U.N. 1993). 
      A project "Drug Abuse Among the Youth" was implemented in May 1994 for youth groups.  An affiliated
NGO has embarked on a programme based on vocational rehabilitation of drop outs.  Other projects with
different target groups include: the Youth and Drug Abuse Among Non-Student Youth and the Alcohol
Reduction Campaign at Community Level (U.N. 1993). 
      The Ministry of Youth and Sports provides education on drugs to the youth and ensures that alternative
activities to drug abuse are available to students and youth (15-25 years old).  The Ministry of
Women's Rights and Family Welfare provides drug education to adults in social welfare centres (HONLEA
1993).  The Ministry of Health has set up a Non-Communicable Disease Unit which is actively engaged in
drug education through radio and television programmes (EFDR 1993). 
      The Trust Fund has tailored a public awareness and prevention educational campaign through its Audio
Visual and Documentation Unit. Prevention of drug abuse in the work place is being carried out by the
Trust Fund through an ILO project (HONLEA 1993). 
      Training of professional and voluntary social workers is provided by international and
non-governmental organizations (HONLEA 1993). 
      Since 1988, the Trust Fund has been celebrating the International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit
Trafficking.  In 1990, the Trust Fund, with the collaboration of its affiliated NGOs, municipalities,
colleges, police and prisons organised a Rally Carnival in order to mark the 3rd International Day
against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking.  The primary aim of this event was to sensitize the
community at large on the alcohol and drug abuse phenomena and its manifold dangers.  This was preceded
by a week's activities and the programme comprised a photo and poster exhibition, inauguration of a
Day Care Centre at Belvedere, forums, workshops, etc (Info. paper-year unknown). 
      Special drug abuse assistance programmes are available at the manufacturing sector (textile
industries), tourist industry (hotels), agricultural sector (sugar and tea industries), and transport
industry (U.N. 1992, 1993).

Different sectors of the media (television, radio, newspapers, and magazines) have been active in
promoting anti-drug messages.  Posters presenting drug prevention messages are targeted at youth. 
Formal and informal mechanisms of collaboration exist between the media and health professionals, and
the Ministry of Public Health.  Regular contacts are held between this ministry and the media in order
to inform the different sectors of the media about drug-related problems (U.N. 1993). 
      Drug prevention activities are promoted at different levels of education.  They have been carried out
in secondary schools since 1989 and drug education has become part of the curricula from 1993.  Further
education levels have also adopted prevention activities starting from 1989.  Higher education
initiated prevention activities in 1984 and drug education was made part of the curricula in 1985 (U.N.
      Some of the prevention activities undertaken in the above institutions are: courses in school
programmes, extracurricular activities, courses in certain faculties of higher education, workshops
(discussion groups) and seminars for the teaching staff of primary and secondary schools, lectures, and
 consciousness-raising activities among school students (U.N. 1993). 
      The first training course on drug abuse for professionals in the fields of health and social work was
held in the Maghreb region in 1992 (Morocco 1993).  Medical and pharmacist students in universities are
 trained in the rational use of psychotropic substances (CMO 1991). 
      Community-wide prevention programmes are carried out in the form of awareness campaigns targeted at
parents, youth and drop-outs.  Activities include meetings, debates, exhibitions, sporting and
religious events (CMO 1991). 
      Ministry of Health officials have established a library of technical drug abuse materials and a model
drug treatment center in Rabat, both with European Union (EU) funding.  Also with EU backing, the
Ministry of Health has undertaken a study of drug abuse patterns in Morocco.  A number of private
organizations and educational institutions are trying to develop anti-narcotics education and treatment
programmes (INCSR 1993).

The media are used in anti-drug campaigns.  Radio programmes on drug abuse, aiming at young adults,
were broadcasted in 1993 and newspapers have been publishing a weekly section on drug abuse aimed at
school children (U.N. 1992). 
      Prevention through education is carried out in primary and secondary schools, but it targets only part
of the student population.  The school curricula includes a "Life Skills" programme, which contains a
minor section on drugs and alcohol.  Prevention education, targeting secondary school students, have
been organized by "Drug Action Group", a private organization, and "Teenage Against Drug Abuse" (TADA)
(CMO 1990; EFDR 1993). Some of the prevention activities consist of newsletters, lectures in youth
camps and lifestyle training for street children (U.N. 1992). 
      Basic and advanced training is provided to doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers and drug law
enforcement personnel.  Professional organizations, trade unions, voluntary agencies, religious groups
and law enforcement agencies have been involved in the formulation and implementation of prevention
programmes (U.N. 1992). 
      Community-wide and workplace drug education workshops have been conducted to train about 5 per cent of
the work force as of 1992. "Model programmes for the prevention of alcohol and drug abuse among
workers and their families" have been conducted as of 1993, by the Alcohol and Drug Resource and
Rehabilitation Centre of the Ministry of Health, with the assistance of WHO and ILO. Among the
participants in the programmes are the University of Namibia, Telecom Namibia, two supermarkets,
Windhoek Prison and a private hospital.  The project aims to promote the implementation of primary
prevention programmes in the workplace and in the community, to train managers and supervisors in early
detection and intervention amongst drug abusing workers and refer to treatment, in case of need (U.N.
1992; EFDR 1993).

The media actively promotes drug prevention campaigns aimed at the youth, families and the general
public.  Leisure time activities, such as indoor and outdoor games, drama, debates, music, television
and film shows are organized.  A radio programme and a documentary on drug abuse problems have been
created (U.N. 1993). 
      NDLEA has introduced anti-drug abuse education into the existing secondary school curricula starting
from 1992; in 1993, it was reported that drug education in schools was still in its preliminary phase.
Drug-free clubs were created in secondary schools to promote a lifestyle devoid of drug abuse among
youth.  A national anti-drug campaign was conducted in 1991 (Nigeria 1993; U.N. 1993).  Since 1992,
prevention activities are also carried out at university levels, with the use of drug abuse information
programmes, drug-free clubs, workshops, seminars and counselling (U.N. 1993). 
      Basic training on drug education programmes are provided to doctors, nurses, pharmacists, other health
workers, social workers, teachers and law enforcement personnel (U.N. 1993). 
      At the community level and in the workplace, drug abuse awareness education is provided to parents and
employees.  Posters, stickers, videos, badges and pamphlets have been distributed (U.N. 1992, 1993).
Civic groups, professional organizations, trade unions, voluntary agencies, religious groups, political
parties, parent-teacher associations, dependent abusers self-help groups, sport clubs and law
enforcement agencies are involved in the formulation and implementation of prevention programmes (U.N.
      Formal collaboration exists for exchange of drug-related information between health professionals and
Ministries, and informal collaboration between law enforcement agencies and private companies (U.N.
      There are no syringe exchange schemes reported operating in Nigeria (U.N. 1992).

Drug prevention campaigns are carried out through the media; radio broadcasts appeal to the people, on
the occasion of visits of political figures, to report drug abusers and traffickers to authorities (CMO
      Plans for a meeting between INCB, Interpol and journalists were reported for 1990, to enable
journalists to inform the general public on the harmful effects of drugs.  A meeting with local
authorities was also planned in 1990 to educate the people about the various drugs seized in the
country (CMO 1989). 
      Preventive education programmes are provided for pregnant women during their pre-natal consultations
(CMO 1989).

Authorities are concerned about the increase of drug abuse among youth, thus prevention activities are
mainly targeted at this group (Senegal 1993). 
      The media actively promote drug awareness campaigns.  In June 1992, the Government of Senegal
sponsored a drug awareness week which included a number of television spots and commercials on drug
abuse.  The Senegalese Boys Scouts and several voluntary and religious organizations also sponsor
anti-drug programmes (INCSR 1993). 
      The Ministry of National Education has been asked to introduce drug awareness information in the
school curricula.  Similar action is to be launched among cultural and sports associations (Senegal
      The Ministry of Labour is to introduce drug education in the work-place through contacts with unions
and professional associations (Senegal 1993).


South Africa
The media has been active in promoting drug prevention messages, mainly awareness programmes aimed at
the whole community (U.N. 1993). 
      Prevention programmes are ongoing at all levels of education, for example, the Youth Project by the
Centre for Intergroup Studies, Horizon, Youth 2000, Peer Counselling, SANCA Life Skills and Youth
Outreach. The Horizon Project is a life-skills training programme, through which information on alcohol
and other drugs is provided, in order to help children make responsible decisions.  Leisure time
activities in the service of the continuing campaign against drug abuse, such as physical training,
organized sports activities and camps, organized by churches and other cultural groups, target school
children, as well as youth and adults (U.N. 1992,1993). 
      Drug education training programmes are part of the education of law enforcement personnel and
in-service training is available to information officers (U.N. 1993).    
      Employee Assistance Programmes in the work place, provide drug related programmes to employees in need (U.N. 1993).

The mass media (television, newspapers, magazines and radio) promote drug prevention programmes (CMO
      Preventive education activities such as seminars and classes are available from primary schools
through higher educational institutions.  Other prevention activities are targeted especially at youth
and parents (CMO 1991). 
      Basic drug education programmes are part of the education of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social and
other health workers and teachers (CMO 1991). 
      Community-wide programmes are implemented by religious and political groups as well as by law
enforcement agencies (CMO 1991).

The media, with the collaboration of health professionals, law enforcement agencies, private companies
and ministries actively promote drug prevention campaigns.  The latter includes television programmes
for the youth, crime prevention programmes for adolescents on the radio, as well as drug awareness
plays for youth and posters for the general public (CMO 1991). 
      Drug education has been part of the curricula of primary school students since 1987.  Prevention
activities for secondary and higher education students include lectures and drug awareness talks by the
officer in charge of narcotics, and seminars on issues relating to drugs in which students
participation is encouraged (CMO 1991). 
      Pharmacists and law enforcement personnel are offered drug education programmes as part of their basic
training (CMO 1991). 
      Several Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), particularly Deliverance Church, Africa Foundation and
Youth Sharing Organization run community-wide programmes on drugs and substances abuse with street
children and youth (EFDR 1993).

United Republic of Tanzania
Mass media campaigns are conducted through the radio and newspapers. 
      Drug education programmes are part of the curriculum in the school system, targeting mainly youth. In
addition, some drug education programmes aim at parents, teachers and community leaders. Special events
with an anti-drug theme (1990) are also organized.  Others out-of-school events are carried out by
NGO's and church groups (Forum 1993). 
      Educational measures are encouraged by the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of
Health. A "Family Life Education" project operated between 1987 and 1993 in 10 primary and 5 secondary
schools and in 5 teacher training colleges. The project targeted youth at risk to increase their health
awareness as well as harmful consequences associated with drug abuse. Seminars on drug abuse for
school youth and for their teachers are provided with the collaboration of NGOs and the Muhimbili
Medical Centre (EFDR 1993). 
      Five drug prevention training workshops have been conducted for educators with an aim to encourage the
development of drug prevention in education the Police, Teachers College, Mass Media, Health
Education, Secondary School, Nurses Training School, Medical Assistant Training College, the
University, the National Library and the Institute of Social Welfare (EFDR 1993). 
      Community programmes, with special focus on youth, in Tanzania (such as those sponsored by the
International Organization of Good Temples) offer day service and after school programmes as prevention
activities (Mwakyanjala, P. 1989). Campaigns also aim to sensitize parents and involve them in drug
prevention education of their children (EFDR 1993). The Community Mental Health Team of the Department
of Psychiatry of Muhimbili Medical Centre has been conducting meetings with community leaders to
discuss drug abuse problems and to develop prevention measures. Parents, teachers and youth are also
enlisted in drug prevention at the community level (EFDR 1993). 
      Drug prevention activities in the work place are led by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, in
collaboration with ILO. These include a counselling and rehabilitation programme for alcohol and drug
dependent abusers (EFDR 1993).

Media activities include radio and television programmes, lecture material, brochures and calendars,
with government sponsorship (EFDR 1993).  A programme depicting negative consequences of alcohol and
drug abuse was aired on national television (U.N. 1990). 
      In secondary schools, there are Anti-Drug Abuse clubs, which assist in monitoring alcohol and drug
related problems among the school population (U.N. 1987, 1990). 
      Workplace programmes target employees in vulnerable industries such as hotels, brewery, airways and
insurance companies (U.N. 1990). 
      Community-wide programmes, as well as prevention programmes in the workplace, are also sponsored by
the International Labour Organization (ILO) (EFDR 1993).  There is a community activation programme at
the Chainama College of Health Sciences. Other youth programmes on small informal scales are also in
place (U.N. 1987, 1990).


No information available.