Drug Abuse in Africa
Mode of intake of drugs in Africa

Burkina Faso
Cannabis is reported smoked or boiled with grains and ingested. Volatile solvents are reported
dissolved in coffee and drunk (U.N. 1989). In 1993, heroin, cocaine, and cannabis were reported to be
smoked.  Synthetic narcotic analgesics and amphetamines are ingested and volatile solvents are reported
 inhaled (U.N. 1993).

Volatile solvents were reported inhaled and taken with alcohol and hallucinogenic plants.  Psychotropic
substances were reported smoked, taken orally, or inhaled and taken in combination with hallucinogenic
plants and alcohol (U.N. 1989).

Cote D'Ivoire
In 1993, Heroin and cocaine were reported injected as well as inhaled and sniffed. Opium and cannabis
were reported smoked.  Amphetamines, barbiturates and benzodiazepines are ingested.  Heroin, cocaine
and cannabis are reported taken in combination with alcohol and tobacco. Amphetamines are taken in
combination with coffee and alcohol (U.N. 1993).

Heroin, amphetamines and stimulants are reported to be injected and sniffed, and opium is injected.
Cannabis is smoked. Tranquilizers are reported to be ingested (U.N. 1989a, 1990).

Benzodiazepines (mainly Diazepam), morphine, pethidine, and pentazocine are often taken with alcohol
(Forum 1993). 
       Khat is abused alone, as well as, in combination with alcohol and cigarettes. Khat was reported
abused together with cigarettes to enhance the effect and improve the taste.  Alcohol and psychotropic
substances are used to counteract the stimulation of khat (EFDR 1993).

According to 1992 data, cannabis is consumed mostly in herbal form, sold rolled up in a thick wrapping
paper into a cigar or a cigarette, but also as a candy.  Alcohol is often taken in combination with
cannabis and sometimes with psychotropic substances and "iboga" (Gabon 1992a). 
      Intravenous drug use (IVU) is reported to be very limited (HONLEA 1993).

Cocaine is either inhaled or sniffed; synthetic narcotic analgesics, amphetamine, barbiturates, and
benzodiazepines are usually ingested; cannabis is smoked or ingested; heroin is either ingested,
smoked, or sniffed (U.N. 1993). 
      Heroin is reported to be taken in combination with cocaine synthetic narcotic analgesics; synthetic
narcotic analgesics are consumed with heroin; cocaine is typically taken with cannabis; cannabis with
cocaine and benzodiazepines; and benzodiazepines are consumed with alcohol (U.N. 1993).

According to a 1994 rapid assessment, health workers reported that injecting drugs is not popular among
drug abusers, although it was observed among heroin abusers. Some of the injecting abusers are
hospital workers who abuse morphine and other prescription drugs. Injecting in the tongue and legs is
reported. Needles and syringes are readily available from pharmacies but shared use is reported among
one third of those who inject. Health worker also report that they could not attribute detected HIV
cases to drug injecting (Mwenesi Abdullah Halima 1995). 
      Khat appears to be a gateway drug to tranquilizers, which are used to reduce khat caused insomnia, as
well as, amphetamines for additional stimulus and to cough syrups containing codeine to reduce pain and
induce drowsiness (Mwenesi Abdullah Halima 1995).

According to the 1989 study of drug abuse in prisons, drug abusers did not inject. The doses of drugs
consumed are reported small and consequently cases of drug overdose are very rare.  The 1989 prison
study showed that 92.4 per cent consumed their drugs orally and the remainder sniffed their drugs (Facy
and Delile 1990).

Heroin is either sniffed, smoked or injected (HONLEA 1993); cannabis is smoked; and Sedative-Type drugs
are ingested (U.N. 1993). 
      In the previous epidemic situation (1983-1986), Brown Sugar was mainly inhaled, whereby a flame is
held under a piece of aluminum foil, causing the heroin to melt and run down the foil.  Now most
abusers (more than 90%) use the intravenous route, mostly because the price is high and the consumers
want to get the maximum effect (EFDR 1993).  The proportion of IDUs (intravenous drug users) among
abusers is estimated as 3-6 per cent (U.N. 1993). 
      Benzodiazepines and codeine tablets are taken orally.  Products such as "Rohypnol", "Diazepan", and
"Mogadon" are, at times, dissolved and injected (EFDR 1993). 
      Many of the Brown Sugar abusers are multidrug abusers.  They alternate Brown Sugar with psychotropic
drugs ("Codeine" tablets, benzodiazepines, and cough syrup) (EFDR 1993).

Injecting of morphine, synthetic narcotic analgesics and heroin is prevalent but to a limited extent.
Heroin is reported to be mostly inhaled.  Opium and volatile solvents are inhaled.  Coca paste,
cannabis (to a limited extent), amphetamine, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines are ingested.  Cannabis
is mostly smoked.  And Cocaine tends to be sniffed (U.N. 1993). 
      Heroin is reported taken in combination with cocaine, cannabis, psychotropic substances and alcohol. 
Morphine is also reported taken in combination with these substances.  Barbiturates, as well as
benzodiazepines, are taken with alcohol, cannabis, and heroin.  Volatile solvents are reported taken
with psychotropic substances (U.N. 1993).

Methaqualone and cannabis are reported smoked and volatile solvents inhaled. Cannabis is reported taken
 in combination with methaqualone and alcohol (U.N. 1992). 
      Intravenous drug use (IVUs) is believed to be rare (Namibia 1993).

Heroin is reported to be injected, inhaled, sniffed and smoked.  Cocaine is inhaled and sniffed. 
Cannabis is smoked; sedatives, benzodiazepines and multiple drugs are ingested.  Heroin is taken in
combination with cocaine, cannabis, alcohol, cigarette and benzodiazepines.  Cocaine is taken with
cannabis, heroin, alcohol and benzodiazepines.  Cannabis and amphetamine are taken with alcohol and
benzodiazepines (U.N. 1993). 
      The most common methods of cannabis consumption is smoking.  Other methods include mixing cannabis
with alcoholic beverages, pepper soup, porridge or tea.  Recently, an increase in the abuse of cannabis
 smoked in association with other drugs, such as heroin and cocaine, has been reported (Nigeria 1994).
      The injection of heroin (0.9 per cent), cocaine (1.1 per cent) and valium (2.0 per cent) were reported
among school youth and 5.8 per cent of abusers in mental health institutions.  However, smoking is
reported to be the most common method of drug intake among youths in schools and drug abusers attending
mental health institutions (42 per cent reported smoking in the latter group).  Other forms of intake
are ingestion (for "valium", "reactivan", cannabis, heroin and cocaine), inhalation and a combination
of different methods (Nigeria 1991).

Heroin is reported to be taken orally and cannabis smoked (U.N. 1990).

Datura is either smoked or consumed orally in a tea infusion (UNESCO 1988).  Cannabis is either
ingested or smoked and opiates (heroin and morphine) are taken orally or inhaled (U.N. 1987).

South Africa
Heroin, cocaine and amphetamines are injected.  Cocaine is also sniffed.  "Wellcanol", which is,
normally, administered orally, is pulverized and injected (U.N. 1993). 
      Cannabis is smoked and ingested, but is also smoked with methaqualone, a combination known as "White
Pipe".  Other drugs ingested include opiates, coca paste, amphetamines and sedatives.  Hallucinogens
are taken orally while volatile solvents are inhaled (U.N. 1993).

Heroin and cocaine are either inhaled or injected.  Cannabis is smoked and barbiturates are ingested
(U.N. 1991). 
      Patterns of multiple drug abuse, such as cocaine and heroin taken with alcohol and cannabis, are
reported (U.N. 1991). 
      The plant "Argemone Mexicana" is often consumed with the native alcoholic drink "Aragi" (U.N. 1991).

Opiates and sedatives are mostly injected.  Some sedatives are also ingested and some opiates smoked. 
Hallucinogens and amphetamines are ingested and cannabis is smoked (U.N. 1991).  
      Multiple drug abuse like volatile solvents mixed with alcohol, and combinations of cannabis and
volatile solvents with alcohol are reported (U.N. 1991). 
      Cannabis is smoked and dissolved in water for consumption.  Khat is sold openly and chewed by youth in
urban centres.  Petrol is sniffed either from small bottles or from soaked cloth, mostly by urban
youth and street children (EFDR 1993).

United Republic of Tanzania
Opiates are injected, ingested and smoked. Cocaine and cannabis are smoked. Cannabis is also ingested.
Other drugs ingested include khat and benzodiazepines.  Volatile solvents are inhaled as well as
sniffed. Multiple drug abuse is reported, including different combinations of the following: cannabis,
alcohol, khat, heroin, cocaine and volatile solvents (U.N. 1991).

Cannabis is usually smoked.  Benzodiazepines is abused in combination with alcohol and cannabis (U.N.

No information available.