Burkina Faso
No information reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December 1994.

Psychotropic substance abuse related deaths were reported, without any estimation (U.N. 1989).

Cote D'Ivoire
In 1989, 3 deaths were reported due to heroin overdose (U.N. 1989). 
      The impact AIDS in the country is significant, especially among those aged between 25 and 49 (AIDS
1994).  However, no data on the association between HIV/AIDS and drug abuse or intravenous drug abuse
was reported.

Increases in criminal activity, family disruption, road accidents and violence were attributed to
illicit drug abuse (U.N. 1989b).

Negative social consequences of khat abuse are reported. Significant portions of meager revenues are
diverted to expenditures on khat. In some cases, up to 50 per cent of the average family income is used
to support expenses related to khat. Other consequences reported are family instability, prostitution
and criminal behavior.  Further, it is said that khat consumption is often associated with reduced
working hour among farmer and as a result to a decrease in the production of cereals, and thus,
malnutrition in the family.  To counteract the effect of khat, alcohol is often abused, resulting in
multiple dependence (Forum 1993).

No information was reported in Annual Reports Questionnaire by 31st December, 1993.

The social costs and consequences associated with drug abuse include: anxiety within families due to
the spread of substance abuse among youth, a rise in crime and resistance to arrest among cannabis
cultivators and drug dependent abusers roaming on the streets (U.N. 1993).

According to a 1994 rapid assessment, abusers reported strained relations with family and friends and
family break up (200 out of 383), decline or failure in school, loss of employment (52 out of 383),
medical complications and legal problems (about 191 out 383) (Mwenesi Abdullah Halima 1995). 
      According to a 1990 study conducted among 306 drug abusers in treatment in psychiatric treatment, 13.8
per cent reported having been incarcerated, 5.2 per cent attempted suicide before commencing drug
abuse and 5.6 per cent, in conjunction with drug abuse. Further, 32.2 per cent reported psychiatric
hospitalization before using drugs and 33.6 per cent in association with drug abuse (Facy F. and Delile
J.M. 1990). 
      Among khat chewers, a large proportion of the income is spent on khat and the divorce rate is higher
that among other groups. Further, khat abuse is associated with problems which lead to divorce,
insomnia, poor health, bad teeth, anorexia, poor work performance and absenteeism and sexual
permissiveness (Haji A.R.J.1983).


Prisoners attributed to drug abuse their first contact with the police (12.9%) and incarceration
(83.6%). Patients in treatment attributed to drug abuse their first contact with the police (8.9%) and
admission to treatment (88.9%).  
      Among patients in drug related treatment, 6.4 per cent reported attempting suicide before commencing
drug abuse and 8.5 per cent, while abusing drugs.  About 11.1 per cent reported school absenteeism, 2.2
per cent had run away from home and 13.3 per cent had reported other types of difficulties (Facy and
Delile 1990).

Some of the social and economic costs and consequences associated with drug abuse encountered during
the past year include: increasing number of separation and divorce cases, child abuse, poverty and wife
battering, family disruption and financial difficulties, crime and violence (U.N. 1993). 
      According to the 1993 Annual Reports Questionnaire reply, 32 HIV infection and 22 AIDS cases have been
diagnosed from 1988 (U.N. 1993). 
      Some direct and indirect consequences of drug abuse on the economy observed include: 
      -The creation of a 14 bed centre (NCRA) to carry out detoxification and follow-up of abusers, as well
     as management of drug related problems in various hospitals (psychiatric and general). 
      -The setting up of a Trust Fund for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts with a budget of
     approximately 330,000 US Dollars per year to cater for NGOs working in the field of addiction. 
      -Nearly 50 per cent of the prison population are drug users sent to jail for trafficking or using
      -The increasing number of accidents, thefts, and murders carried out by drug abusers. 
      -15-20 per cent of drug abusers are not working when Mauritius is in a situation of overemployment and
      thus has to import labour from abroad to meet its demand in labour force (EFDR 1993).

Social and economic costs and consequences of drug abuse are reported to be significant but difficult
to assess (U.N. 1993).  No further information has been reported in the Annual Reports Questionnaire. 
      According to a survey, conducted from 1986 through 1994, on HIV positive or AIDS affected persons, out
of the 202 AIDS cases registered in Morocco by June 1994, 23 were contaminated by intravenous drug use
(IVU) (U.N. 1993).

In Windhoek district, 15 deaths due to poisoning were reported for 1992.  Of these, 4 were due to
unknown drugs, but usually related to traditional brew ("Tombo") or suspected traditional medicine use.
Since 1989, there has been only one case of "dipipanone" overdose. No other opiate related deaths
were reported (U.N. 1992). 
      According to a 1992 survey, about 40-50 per cent of all traumatic surgery cases are alcohol or drug
related.  Approximately 30 per cent of hospital beds are occupied by alcohol and other drug related
illnesses.  Of 2,518 patients surveyed in the areas around the capital Windhoek, about 831 suffered
from the abuse of alcohol and other drug related conditions.  About 63 per cent of these 831 patients
have been devastated with chronic alcoholism and the abuse of other drugs particularly cannabis and
methaqualone (Namibia 1993). 
      No official record of occurrence of intravenous drug users (IVUs) nor indications on the spread of
HIV/AIDS among this group is available (Namibia 1993).

Nigeria records one of the highest rate of road traffic accidents worldwide.  It is believed that the
abuse of alcohol and other drugs is contributing to the rate of fatal road accidents (U.N. 1992, 1993).
      A high percentage of money allocated to health services, is spent on treatment and rehabilitation of
drug abusers. The equipment in two new rehabilitation centre for drug abusers cost 1 million dollars
(U.N. 1993). 
      Delinquent youth, who abuse drugs, tend to be violent and appear to be involved in extortion
activities  (U.N. 1993).

There were no deaths reported to be due to drug abuse (CMO 1989).

Deaths resulting from drug abuse were not reported for 1990 (Senegal 1991).

South Africa
The cost of treating drug abusers is an estimated 80 million rand per annum (U.N. 1993).

The abuse of the plant "Argemone Mexicana" has caused many deaths, especially in the town of Abri (U.N.

Increasing lack of discipline in a number of urban secondary schools as well as in high class boarding
schools are attributed to drug and alcohol abuse. Decreased production in some rural areas is
attributed to excessive abuse of locally produced alcohol (U.N. 1991).

United Republic of Tanzania
According to U.N. reports, drug dependence among youth from affluent background leads some to selling
family valuables to maintain their habit, resulting in strained family relations. Concern is also
reported over reduction of productivity in business and costly treatment of the abusers (U.N. 1991).

A report from Lusaka highlighted the death of six persons due to heroin overdose in 1993 (ICPO 1993). 
      Although no statistics are available, heroin injecting is spreading according to available reports
(Zambia 1993).

According to the study above, drug abuse led to a first contact with a PHC (42.5%), police (28.7%),
psychiatric services (3.3%) and incarceration (1.5%) and other services (24%).  
      Among drug abusing respondents, 4 per cent reported attempting suicide before commencing drug abuse
and 1.2 per cent, in relation to drug abuse.  About 5.4 per cent reported school absenteeism, 0.6 per
cent had run away from home and 24.1 per cent had reported other types of difficulties (Facy and Delile