Drug Abuse in the Global Village
Amphetamines Abuse in Africa
Extent of Amphetamines Abuse
Abuse of cannabis, stimulants such as amphetamines, ephedrine, and a preparation containing codeine (sedaspir), sedative hypnotics (immenoctal) and volatile solvents (glues) has been reported for 1989 and 1990. Estimates on prevalence of abuse are not available (U.N. 1989, 1990, 1993).
In 1989, it was estimated that there were 400 psychotropic substances abusers (amphetamines, benzodiazepines, sedatives and hallucinogens) in Chad (U.N. 1989).
According to registries of drug abusers other reported drugs abused are amphetamine and barbiturates (U.N. 1993).
The annual prevalence of abused drug in Egypt is estimated amphetamines (1%) (U.N. 1989b). About 8 per cent of the male secondary school students have ever abused drugs (U.N. 1989b). According to a sample survey of 5,108 workers, psychoactive drugs are abused by workers to a much lesser extent (1.8 per cent). In comparison, the prevalence of alcohol abuse among workers is significantly higher (20 per cent) (Al Kott 1991).
According to the 1993 Annual Reports Questionnaire, Ethiopia does not maintain a drug abuse registry (U.N. 1993). Assessment of the extent of drug abuse is based on indirect indicators, such as data provided by the Police, the psychiatric hospital and Courts and Customs (Forum 1993). Although the magnitude of drug abuse in Ethiopia has not been studied thoroughly, it is known that millions of Ethiopians are engaged either in the trade or abuse of khat (catha Edulis) (Forum 1993).
Dependence among tens of thousands of abusers is reported to be due to psychotropic substances such as Valium and Anafril. Amphetamines are available in the capital's street markets and are also sold along rural roads (Mounguengui 1990; Gabon 1992a).
Ghana does not maintain a drug abuse registry. According to best judgement information, it is estimated that amphetamine and synthetic narcotic analgesics (1,000 annual abusers and 500 daily abusers each) (U.N. 1993). Between 1975 and 1980, a research conducted for the Ghana Education Service and UNESCO revealed that of the 4216 students interviewed in 35 schools in Southern Ghana, nearly 50 per cent had abused at least one drug (Preventive Education 1992).
Forty per cent of psychotropic drugs are diverted into the illegal market (Mission 1993).
Drug abuse among student, especially, in the region of Tanger is believed to be significantly higher than elsewhere in Morocco. In addition to cannabis abuse, it is reported that the abuse of sedatives (barbiturates, benzodiazepines, among others), volatile solvents, heroin, opium, morphine, synthetic narcotic analgesics, cocaine, coca paste and amphetamines is prevalent but not significant (U.N. 1993).
Ninety per cent of the total prison population in 1992 were drug and alcohol abusers. Out of these, 97 per cent were males (U.N. 1992).
Several special population surveys were conducted in Nigeria but none at the national level (U.N. 1992; Nigeria 1991). According to a drug survey conducted in Lagos City in 1992, out of 66 persons who claimed to have abused psychoactive substances, about 80 per cent were males (or 55 cases). Eighty per cent of the drug consumers were between 18 and 30 years of age (U.N. 1993).
Other significant drugs of abuse are psychotropic substances, locally known as "pions", and mainly sedative hypnotics, tranquilizers ("Diazepam") and stimulants (UNESCO 1988). In 1988, a sample survey was conducted among 7,677 young persons, 15 to 24 years of age, 5,585 students and 2,092 non-students. Survey findings indicate that 10.9 per cent of the youth abused tranquilizers. About 1.4 per cent of the youth surveyed, abused tranquilizers "often" or "very often". Further, about 14 per cent of the youth abused at least one illicit drug, 6.9 per cent abused cannabis, 5.9 per cent abused "pions", 5.1 per cent abused "guinze", 2.1 per cent abused "hard drugs" such as morphine, heroin or cocaine and 1.6 per cent abused datura (UNESCO 1988).
Other drugs abused include narcotic analgesic preparations, such as those found in cough syrups which may contain codeine, heroin, opium, morphine, hallucinogens, cocaine or amphetamines (U.N. 1993).
Cannabis is reported to be the most abused drug in Sudan, followed by Diazepam. No data relating to prevalence is available (U.N. 1991).
Trends in Amphetamines Abuse
Large increases in the abuse of volatile solvents as well as in psychotropic substances were reported for 1989 (U.N. 1989).
In 1993, amphetamines were reported decreasing (U.N. 1993).
An increase in the abuse of psychotropic substances such as amphetamines has been also reported (UNDCP CPF 1993). Earlier reports have also suggested a large increase in the abuse of all drugs in 1989 (U.N. 1989a).
Drug abuse is reported to be increasing, especially, among the youth (Mounguengui 1990).
The abuse of amphetamine is reported stable (U.N. 1993).
A general increase in drug abuse is reported (Mali - Year unknown).
The increase in the consumption of illicit drugs could be attributed to increased availability of illicit drugs and to an increase in income due to a higher employment rate ant rapid urbanization of Mauritius. An increase in trafficking has also been reported (U.N. 1993). According to statistics obtained from the Police Department, it is observed that the number of arrests, compared to that of a couple of years ago, is lightly on the increase (U.N. 1992, 1993).
During the seventies the main drug of abuse remained cannabis, although abuse of sedatives, amphetamines and volatile solvents was also prevalent (Lamasouri 1993). In 1993, consumption of amphetamines was reported stable. The increase in the demand of drugs has been attributed to socio-economic upheavals (U.N. 1993). A tendency towards poly drug consumption has been reported (U.N. 1993).
Drug abuse is reported as increasing since Independence (March 1990) (U.N. 1991).
Drug abuse is reported on the increase in 1992 and 1993, particularly with respect to heroin, cocaine, cannabis and, to a lesser extent, amphetamines and benzodiazepines. The increase in illicit drug consumption has been attributed to poor, depressed economic situation resulting in large unemployment, stress and parental deprivation. The increase in rural-urban migration with attendant social changes in urban settings has been identified as a contributing factor to drug abuse problems. The increased availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as a result of illicit trafficking has been reported as another major factor (U.N. 1992, 1993).
Local drug abuse among youths is on the rise (INCSR 1993). Senegalese are increasingly involved in international narcotics activities, including the false document industry (INCSR 1993).
The increase in the consumption of diverted licit drugs and illicit drugs is attributed to unemployment, family disintegration, decline in religiosity, urbanization, changes in attitudes in the community and peer pressure (U.N. 1993).
A large decrease in the abuse of amphetamines is also reported (U.N. 1991).
No information available.
References and Notes
U.N. 1989,1990, 1993. Replies to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaires" for the years 1989,1990 and 1993.
U.N. 1989. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaire" for the year 1989.
U.N. 1993. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaires" for the year 1993.
Al Kott 1991. "Drug and Substances Abuse Among Egyptian Workers-
Model Programmes for the Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Workers and their Families".
U.N. 1989a. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaire" for the year 1989.
U.N. 1989b. Replies to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaires", 1989. Field Test Draft, 1990.
UNDCP CPF 1993. UNDCP Country Programme Framework. EGYPT. September 21st, 1993.
U.N. 1993. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaire" for the year 1993.
Forum 1993. "Country Profile on Demand Reduction Forum in East and Southern Africa". September, 1993.
Gabon 1992a. "Presentation de la Situation de la Drogue au Gabon". Premiere Reunion du Comite Technique de Lutte Anti-Drogue. 24- 30 Novembre 1992. Brazzaville (CONGO).
Mounguengui 1990. Dr. Mounguengui, Conseiller Technique du Ministre de la Sante. "Report to the conference on Drug abuse, Youth and the Society". Libreville, 21 July 1990.
U.N. 1993. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Report Questionnaires" for the year 1993.
Preventive Education 1992. "Report on Workshop on Integration of Drug Education Into School Curriculum for Second Cycle Education Teachers". Legon, Ghana. January 3rd-10th, 1992.
Mali- Year unknown. "Note d'information sur la drogue". Ministטre de la Santי Publique et des Affairs Sociales. Year unknown.
U.N. 1992, 1993. Replies to the UNDCP "Annual Report Questionnaires" for the years 1992, and 1993.
Mission 1993. Join UNDCP/WHO/ILO Mission to Mauritius 19-26 April 1993.
U.N. 1993. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaire" for the year 1993.
Lamasouri 1993. Drogue, Adolescence et Milieu Scolaire.
U.N. 1991,1992. Replies to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaires" for the years 1991 and 1992.
U.N. 1992, 1993. Replies to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaire" for the year 1992 and 1993.
Nigeria 1991. 1991 Drug Abuse Data Collection, National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), Nigeria.
INCSR 1993. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report. April 1993. United States Department of State. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters.
UNESCO 1988. "Consommation de drogue par les jeunes au Senegal", Rיsultats de l'enquךte יpidimiologique effectuיe au Sיnיgal sur la consomation de drogue parmi les 15 א 24 ans, UNESCO March 1988.
U.N. 1993. Reply to the UNDCP's annual reports questionnaires for the year 1993.
* Report: Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Residents of Major Districts in the Self-Governing States in South Africa.
U.N. 1991. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaire" for the year 1991.
U.N. 1991. Reply to the UNDCP "Annual Reports Questionnaires" for the year 1991.